Skip to main content


Showing posts from August, 2019

Biographia Literaria: Analysis of Fancy and Imagination

Biographia Literaria: Analysis of Coldridge's Fancy and Imagination
The Term Fancy and ImaginationDuring the 17th century, the term 'Imagination' and 'fancy' has often enough been used in a vaguely synonymous way to refer to the realm of facing tale or make belief. Yet here and there the term 'Imagination'  had tended to distinguish itself from fancy and settled towards a meaning centred in the sober literalism of sense impression and the survival of these in memory. Such is the distinction between imagination and fancy. 

Imagination and fancy in Biographia literaria Coldridge differed from Wordsworth in his aim and purpose, he was more preoccupied with the psychological process which the imaginative creations becomes more vitally important than the poems themselves. Although Coldridge has been expected as the more articulate and theoretical sportsmen between the two poets, Coldridge  has attributed to his own belief to the poetical practice of Wordsworth. A…

King Lear: Analysis of the Fool, Storm and Reconciliation Scene

King Lear:Analysis of the Fool, Storm and Reconciliation Scene

King Lear - The FoolKing Lear is the only play in which as Fool has been introduce by Shakespeare. The fool use to be a professional jester or clown whose function was to amuse the king by his jokes an witty remarks. The Fool enjoy a good deal of freedom to speak on any subject without any restraint. The object in introducing the Fool seems to have been to provide comic relief in the play. The Fool in King Lear has perhaps evoke much criticism than any other character in the play. The Fool comments at the Lear dignity from a kind of chronic counter part which add a depth any complexity to this tragic play. The first mention of the Fool comes when Lear who is pending his first month after giving a way. His entire Kingdom to his daughter, when he ask one of his Knights:
Where is my knave? My Fool, Go you and called my Fool Trither.
The Knight reply that, since Cordelia, departure from France, the Fool has much pined away. The r…

Paradise lost: Satan as the Hero of John Milton

Paradise lost: Satan as the Hero of John Milton 

Qualities of a HeroThe hero, as a rule, must be the central figure in the epic and the epic must be about him and his exploits. Moreover, apart from being sacrificing and altruistic, he must have a number of heroic qualities as physical courage, fearlessness, skill in the use of arms, intelligent, foresight, determination and persistence. Whether Satan is the hero of Paradise Lost or not depends on the presence of the above mentioned qualities in him. However to determine it, it is imperative to analyse deep into his character in order to look for the heroic qualities in him. 

The Idea of Satan as the Hero of Paradise LostThere can be no gained saying the fact that Satan is the hero of Paradise Lost, in-so-far as Book I and Book II are concerned. He dominates the first two books and towers head shoulders above in companions. He has a huge bulls like a Zeviathan, his shield has a circumference as blood as that of the Moon, and his spear is…

Restoration age and its Influences in Society

Restoration age: Influences to the social condition and English literature. 
The period from 1660 to 1700 is called as the Restoration Age . The Restoration of King Charles II in 1660 is known as the beginning of this era, the era of revolution and scientific invention. Which influences are reflected not only in the life of common people  but in  the literature of England. Three historical events - the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, the Romans Catholic controversy that raged during the later half Charles II's reign and the Restoration of the year 1688 deeply influenced the social life and the literary movements of the age. 

1. The Restoration The reign of Charles II produced a new taste or interest to the EnglishLiterature. The Restoration Period, declines the values of Puritan periods such as gravity, moral earnestness and decorum in all things. The natural instincts and the inborn urge for enjoyment which were suppressed in the previous era came to violent exhibition. The comm…

Restoration Period or Age of Dryden - Brief description

Restoration Period or Age of Dryden 
The period from 1660 to 1700 is known as the Restoration Period or the Age of Dryden. The English people were fed up with the restraints of the Puritan regime which denied to them all entertainments even of the most innocent kind. Prince Charles who had sought shelter in France, was invited to occupy the throne of his father. He was restored to the English throne in 1660 and became king Charles II of England. The Restoration of Charles II marked the beginning of a new era both in life send literature. Charles II brought with him refinement and Culture of the French, as well as the immortality and profligacy of the French Court. He also brought with him French literary influence. It marked the beginning of that Neo-Classicism or Pseudo-Classicism which was to dominate English Literature for next one hundred and fifty years. 
Restoration Period: English Literature The literature of the period reflected the spirit of the Age. Corruption, Moral Laxity, R…

Critical Realism and Socialist Realism- George Luckacs

Critical Realism and Socialist Realism: George Luckacs
For the modern world, George Luckacs discusses two forms of realism,  Critical Realism and Socialist Realism. The theory of Critical Realism says that the bourgeois intellectual still has a positive role to play. In 1955 George Luckacs wote:
The real dilemma of our age is not the opposition between Capitalism and Socialism, but the opposition between peace and war. The first duty of the bourgeois intellectual has become the rejection of an all prevailing fatalistic angst, implying a rescue operation for humanity rather than any break through Socialism.

Against this perspective he sees as politically the most important task the building of a peace movement in which all ideological tendencies merge and artistically the contribution of the great tradition of the Nineteenth century Liberal novel. The hero of his phrase is Thomas Mann, compare to Gothe for his concern with the 'totality of human relationship. Mann, with his developmen…

O captain! My Captain! - Walt Whitman

O captain! My Captain! - Walt Whitman  
O captain! My Captain!: Summary The poem 'O Captain! My Captain!' is an elegy to the speakers recently deceased captain, at once celebrating the safe and successful return of their ship and mourning the loss of its great leader. In the first stanza, the speaker expresses his relief that the ship has reached its home port at least and describes hearing people cheering. Despite the celebration on land and the successful voyage, the speaker reveals that his Captain's dead body is lying on the desk.

In the second stanza, the speaker implores the Captain to 'Rise up and hear the bells', wishing the dead man could witness the elation. Everyone adored the Captain and the speaker admits that his death feels like a horrible dream.
In the final stanza, the speaker Juxtaposes his feelings of mourning and pride.

O captain! My Captain!: Critical AppreciationWalt Whitman wrote this poem after president Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. It is…

What is Post Structuralism?

What is Post Structuralism?
Post Structuralism is a tale of twentieth century, in philosophy and literary criticism, which is difficult summarize but  generally defines itself in its opposition to the popular Structuralism movement which proceeded in 1950s and 1960s France. It is closely related to post modernism, although the two concepts are not synonymous. In post Structuralist approach to textual analysis, the reader replaces the author as the primary subject of enquiry and without a central fixtion on the author, post Structuralist examines other sources for meaning which are therefore never authoritative, and promise no consistency. A readers culture and society shares at least an equal part in the interpretation of a place to the cultural and social circumstances of the author. Some of the key assumptions of Post Structuralism includes-

The concept of self as a singular and coherent entity in a fictional construct and an individual rather comprises conflicting tension and knowled…

University Wits: The Dramatic Contribution of University wits

University Wits: The Dramatic Contribution of University WitsWhat is University Wits? Describe the Dramatic contribution of the University Wits?

What is Universe Wits? The University Wits refer to a group of dramatists who were predecessors of Shakespeare in drama. They are called so because they belonged either to Oxford or Cambridge. Christopher Marlowe is the chief of the University Wits. The others are Robert Greene, and Thomas Nashe from Cambridge, and John Lyly, Thomas Lodge, and George Peele. 

The University Wits created the English national drama. They invest it with honour and glory. They are also responsible for the development of romantic drama which doesn't care for the writers of time and space and action. They have raised the subject-matter of drama to a higher level. They also revolutionized nature of the tragedy. They also contributed to the art of characterisation. 

Dramatic Contribution of University Wits:
John Lyly : Lyly wrote eight comedies. He wrote for private t…

Marxism: Bertolt Brecht

Marxism by Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht was a German writer and a thinker, who perhaps is given the same pedestal in Drama as Shakespeare, Primarily known as Dramatist and Theatre activist. Brecht wanted to revolutionized and redefine and the concept of Entertainment. He vouched for ‘Creative pleasure’, wrote radical texts and essays on theatre and propounded what is now called ‘epic theatre’. His theatre is best define as ‘dramatic vessel of radical didactism being influence by his Marxist believes. He introduces several theoretical techniques to incorporate his Marxist inclination in his work. Mainly the alienation effect didactism , breaking the forth wall, gestures, narration and use of song. In the article some reflection Brecht and acting. Martin Esslin describes the characteristics of three most commonly practice acting form in the 1920’s Germany. He points out the highly declamatory styled and artificial theatre, the naturalistic acting style used in the plays of Stringberg a…

Elizabethan Sonnets and its Features [Explanation]

Elizabethan Sonnets and its Features  Discussion on:

Show how Elizabethan sonnet was a product of the time and comment on its theme and form.Write a note on Elizabethan sonnets and comment on its features..
The Sonnets originated in Italy during the thirteenth century under the patronage of Petrarch and Dante. The sonnet enjoyed and became popular in Italy during the fifteenth century but in the sixteenth century it spread to Spain and France. It further made its way to England through the works of Wyatt, Surrey in the early sixteenth century.

After Wyatt and Surrey, the sonnet was neglected for a number of years till Sir Philip Sidney came to protect the dying form by composing 108 sonnets in his 'Astrophel and Stella'. These poems expressed the poet's heart for a lady who broke off with him. In these sonnets we find much of the conventional materials of the Italian sonnets. But on the other hand we find the practical situation of a man who loves one very much. After the pub…

John Milton as the child of the Renaissance and the Roformation

John Milton as the child of the Renaissance and the Roformation
John Milton was one of the greatest poets of England and he is placed next to William Shakespeare in the hierarchy of English poets. According to a critic, 'if England to be presented in a Congress of international poets, she would be represented by Shakespeare first and Milton next.' the writers of the seventeenth century generally worked under the influence of Renaissance and the Roformation. Milton was also a poet of the the seventeenth century, so he was also influenced by these two literary movements. In all his poetry we can see a nice fusion of elements upheld by the Renaissance and Reformation. It was only Milton who succeeded in producing living and beautiful poems in correct classical forms. In this form he also tried to power the spirit of the Protestant movement.

The Renaissance was distinguished by awakened interest in the old writings of the Greeks and Romans. It may been seen that all the scholars of…

Metaphysical poetry and metaphysical school of poetry

Metaphysical poetry and metaphysical school of poetry. 

Metaphysical Poetry The term 'Metaphysical' is meaningful. In it 'meta' means 'beyond' and 'physics'  means 'physical nature'. In the usual sense, Metaphysical Poetry means the poetry dealing with metaphysical subjects like the nature of the universe, the movements of planets and other stars, the creation of man, his relationship to the universe, the nature of the soul, it's function in the body and the relationship of man with God.

Features of Metaphysical PoetryThe salient features of metaphysical poetry are as follows-

Display of Learning: Metaphysical poets were the men of learning and to show their learning was their chief object. That is why we find obscure reference in such poetry. Conceit and hyperbole: Metaphysical poetry abound in conceits. These are the far-fetched comparison. They are really the instruments by the exaggeration of a situation or description. Bother of these f…

What is Word?

What is word? 
The Word is a smallest Linguistic entity that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning  ; for e.g. 'I', 'Are', 'You', 'Book' are words. Any word in any language made up either one phonim or more than one phonim, for example- the words in English language like "Eye", "Or", "Oh" are (Transcription writing) consists of one phonemes each. In British English the letter 'r' is not pronounced at the end of the words. 
Moreover 'A' diphthong is one sound unit. Similarly, the words like Eat, Tea, Zoo (Transcription) are made of two phonims and words like God, Fat, Kiss are made of three phonims and so on.

Words made of single syllable are called Monosyllablic, word which have more than one syllable are called Disyllablic words. For e.g.- Father, Honest. Words with three syllable are called trisyllablic words. Example - Elephant, Friendliness etc. There are few words such 'A…

Age of Chaucer as an age of Transition [Explanation]

Age of chaucer as an age of transition
The fourteenth century or Age of chaucer is a remarkable period for not only English Literature but to the England and livelihood of common people. First of all this period produced some great writers of all time, and they're respectively Wyclif and Chaucer. Wyclif and Chaucer's interests were very different from other contemporary writers. Their subject matter and writing techniques may appropriately be said to close Middle age and creates new path for Modern History. In simple word, the fourteenth century is (Popularly known as) a transition period between Middle age to Modern time, midway between literary giant like Dante and Michael. 

In the midst of popular agitations, aggressive and needles wars, public miseries and calamities and reviving taste for literature and art, Geoffrey Chaucer arose.  His remarkable career extended over the last half of the fourteenth century, when public events were of considerable historical importance. It…